A Republican strategist and veteran pollster, she was the first woman to manage a successful US presidential campaign, spearheading Mr Trump's effort in 2016.
As senior counsellor at the White House, Mrs Conway acted as political adviser to President Trump and maintained a highly influential position in the administration.
In contrast, her husband George is a co-founder of The Lincoln Project - a Republican political action committee working to prevent the re-election of President Trump in 2020.
"The past four years have allowed me blessings beyond compare," she said in a statement.
"[George and I] disagree about plenty but we are united on what matters most: the kids," she added.
"Our four children are teens and tweens starting a new academic year, in middle school and high school, remotely from home for at least a few months," continued Mrs Conway. "As millions of parents nationwide know, kids 'doing school from home' requires a level of attention and vigilance that is as unusual as these times."
Claudia Conway's tweet about her mother went viral over the weekend.
my mother’s job ruined my life to begin with. heartbreaking that she continues to go down that path after years of watching her children suffer. selfish. it’s all about money and fame, ladies and gentlemen.
She later tweeted that she was taking a "mental health break" from social media, saying "this is becoming way too much".
Kellyanne Conway is one of Mr Trump's most ardent supporters, but has long been a controversial figure. She has become well known for sparring with journalists in defence of the president.
One of her most famous lines was "alternative facts", the phrase she used to describe then White House press secretary Sean Spicer's highly questioned figures about the number of people attending Mr Trump's inauguration.
She has often found herself caught between her husband and the president.
Mr Conway has publicly disparaged the president, describing him as "incompetent". The president, in response, has called him a "stone cold LOSER" and said that he had turned down Mr Conway for a job in the justice department.