The deal with Interregional Sports Group, reportedly worth more than $100m (£76m), will allow F1 to develop in-play betting markets during grands prix.
F1 will also work with Sportradar to monitor betting-related fraud.
Managing director Sean Bratches said the deal would give fans "new ways to engage with the sport".
Liberty Media completed an $8bn (£6.4bn) takeover of F1 from Bernie Ecclestone in January 2017.
As part of the deal, betting brands will be shown on physical and virtual trackside signage, as well as branded on-screen graphics.